A Brief History of Linux

Tux
Tux

 

History Lesson

The follow six sections include a brief description for those who may not know or possibly need a small refresher regarding the history of Linux. The following is easily found elsewhere on the Internet but is compiled into a quick and easy to read format that will provide the background for further endeavors into the Linux and open source world. This is not meant to be a complete guide but provides enough history to answer most basic questions.

What is Linux

Linux, generally is used to refer to as a whole distribution, such as Ubuntu, which includes software, a GUI, and more. In actuality, it is the operating system, more specifically the kernel, which allows the execution of applications, task scheduling, peripheral control and those types of activities. It is the piece that allows applications to run in parallel, providing access to the memory, the processor and allowing your computer to be functional for everyday tasks we generally take for granted. You may be wondering what makes Linux different from other operating systems such as Microsoft’s Windows. Linux is based on an older operating system known as Unix. It has many similarities to Unix, although there are differences as well. In general, though the UNIX philosophies have been carried over into Linux and adopted by a newer culture. We will discuss the UNIX history in the following lecture.

UNIX Background

UNIX is a multiuser, multitasking operating system. Originally developed by AT&T’s Bell Labs by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie, UNIX was designed to be a modular system that was easily extendable to fit the needs of those using the system. Later UNIX was released to third parties, including universities. The release included the source code, which gave third parties the ability to extend and improve upon the UNIX operating system. The ability to modify the source code and the systems modularity, are major key aspects of UNIX that have been carried over into the Linux operating system.

Creation of Linux

Linux was created in 1991 by Linus Torvalds while he was attending the University of Helsinki. It was originally created to run on Intel x86 hardware but has since been ported to many computing platforms from supercomputers to mobile phones to embedded systems. The source code is written in the C programming language, and as of version 3.10 there where more than 17 million lines of code in the kernel. Development comes from volunteers to giant corporations, although the code remains free and open source for all to view, use and modify.

GNU

GNU was originally intended to be a free UNIX-like operating system and was conceived by Richard Stallman. The GNU operating system has unfortunately not seen as much development or adoption as the Linux kernel. Other UNIX pieces created under the GNU umbrella have been used with the Linux kernel though, in order to create a full-fledged operating system. Without the GNU software pieces, the Linux kernel would not have been so successful. Together they complement each other and provide many of the general computer processes and programs for the computer to run. Because of this, some people refer to Linux as GNU/Linux.

Licensing

Linux is licensed under the GPL or the GNU General Public License. This license is designed to provide freedom to the user, allowing them access to the source code and the right to modify the source code to fit their needs. It also helps further development by requiring any changes to the source code to be made public, thereby giving back to the community. There are many benefits to this license, although there are arguments against the GPL and similar licenses. Other licenses that are similar but not exact include the BSD licensing and the Apache licensing.

Tux

Just like many good things in life, Linux has a mascot. His name is Tux. He is a penguin with a yellow beak and feet. Tux was originally created by Larry Ewing using Gimp, a free software graphics program similar to Photoshop. There are many Linux games designed that include the mascot, including Tux Racer and Super Tux. Early Linux users will more than likely have had some experience with these and new users should find them enjoyable to pass the time by when needing some relaxation.

 

How Not Creating Goals is Costing You

The Situation

Deadlines, endless meetings, continuous education, holidays, family events, all that and more in what seems to be cities that never sleep – it is hard for people to find time with all the rushing around in our lives. Even schedules have given way as things fight over time slots, sneaking in and expanding into otherwise already scheduled tasks, cutting any free time out of the day and causing a chaos that controls lives with no regard to a person’s desires or needs. What can you do to get past this? How is it possible to break out of this seamlessly never ending cycle that continuous on day in and day out? Lack of planning could be causing you to overlook the important tasks you need to focus on, allowing the least important items to crawl into your time management struggle one by one. You may feel like you’re being engulfed in the expectations of life, pulled every direction possible until feeling as if you have been split into a million puzzle pieces. In the end, you’re losing out on achieving your desires and being the best you could be – ultimately are losing out on your happiness.

Not creating goals is reducing your value. Without goals, you cannot stay on track in this busy world – it is cutting your productivity value and your ability to achieve the things you desire. So how do you reclaim your unfulfilled desires? How do you go about picking up the pieces of your life that are scattered across the hours of the day, put them back together and reclaim your value? How do you jump back on track and reach the place you intended for your life? Through proper planning and goal setting, and with a little bit of practice, anyone can achieve what they desire the most and what they are longing to be. By implementing these steps, I have successfully managed my time, reduced stress, completed important task faster and created a list of goals. What are your goals? What do you need to focus your time on? What areas in your life could use focus? In the following sections, I will list the solutions to these problems. In the following sections, I will go over the steps needed to enhance your life and become a productive individual. Following these guidelines will increase your value and your productivity all in a few simple steps.

Start Small

Do not reach for the stars your first try. Begin with goals that are smaller. This is not to say that you should not push yourself, but that you’re being reasonable with what you can produce. You will become more confident as time moves on. Save the rock star dreams for then. Introduce yourself slowly to new methods and ideas. Do not rush into things you do not understand. Once you have a grasp of the more complex, you will be able to add onto your expectations. You will soon find yourself shooting for the stars or heading toward the goals you have aligned for yourself.

Write Down Your Goals

Creating a vision is one of the most important steps. Without this step, you have nothing to work towards. Finding the correct goals for yourself can be confusing for most people. Should you do what makes you happy or what pays more? Often what you find makes you happy will in the end pay more not only on capital gains, but emotional and mental rewards. Finding this may be harder than some think though and such fantastic visions produce grand ventures for all those involved. Also, make sure you put a time frame on your goals. Doing this will make you accountable for your actions and push you to complete the task at hand. It is important to write your goals down. Doing so provides a statement of your intentions and allows for you to track your progress.

Sort By Importance

With yours goals written down in writing, you now need to order them by importance. Decide on which goals have to be done. These goals should greatly impact your life. These will be your top goals. Next list the goals that are very important, but not quite as important as the first set. Continue this until your reach a set of goals that really are not important for you to complete. For such tasks, you should assign them others to complete if possible. Anything left over not already classified should be removed from your goals. These are things that make no difference whether they are completed or not. Sorting your goals may or may not seem like an easy task. Either way, do not rush through this. Each goal must be thoroughly thought through in order to judge its worth in your life.

Create Lists

Once you have your goals laid out in writing, break up each one into pieces. Then place these pieces into a monthly list. Break those further down into weekly lists. Once you have that, move onto a daily list. The daily list should be broken down into pieces that can completed into relatively simple tasks. With these “simpler” tasks, you should be able to complete complex tasks in your day to day life by completing one step at a time. The more complex the goal, the more pieces you will generally have. Providing yourself with the pieces allow for you to realize the ease of completing your goals, no matter how complex they may seem at first.

Do Not Multitask

Although you may believe multitasking increases your productivity, it actually decreases it greatly. Find the one thing you are supposed to do now and do it. Concentrate on that and nothing else. Do not bother with working on multiple tasks at one. This will increase your concentration on the issue at hand, causing you to produce better results. Anything that causes you to have to think about a different task will cause issues.Work on one task at a time. This will increase your ability to complete the task much faster.

Finish What You Start

The easiest way to get something finished is to start it. If you take your time to start a task, it takes that much longer to finish it. That is if you even ever do start it. I myself have been known to research and plan out taking hours upon hours to devise my strategy to never execute said plan. Sad is those who think and never do, experiencing the thoughts of success with never really experiencing its true flavor. Not you though, as now you know the true secret. Get started! What are you waiting for? No one will make sure your most important task get done except you. You should also set deadline for your goals, which will allow you to measure how successful you were once complete and will also provide guidance while working through your goals.

 

How First Blog Posts are Making the World a Better Place

Brandon Braun
Myself

The first blog post is an interesting one, with little to go on and no one to scroll through it pondering great thoughts. So what is its purpose? With no audience, what is the goal for it? One of making the world a little greater. It is important for one main reason, it gives the writer of said blog his or her start. It is the beginning of a spectacular adventure, set forth to enlighten not only readers but the one crafting the blog. This humble beginning sets the stage for future ideas and conversations, conversations that will open up possibilities to expand, to grow in ways not possible without communication. Even if no one reads the first blog, it remains one of the most important blogs written by bloggers in todays society of fast moving technology. First blog posts are the “Grand Openings” of future potential.

Well, not much of a “Grand Opening” for me per say, but more of a small quiet start of the long road ahead; exploring my passions, Linux and programming. For the most part the structure of this site will be to post on topics I am currently working on or find interesting. Possibly if one day, in a galaxy far away, this site becomes strangely popular, due to some unforeseen cause, I may take suggestions on things to write about. Heck, I may take suggestions now as I myself am struggling for ideas. The goal is to write. At first, I will write one post a week, at least I will attempt this venture. After that, who knows. I could start writing more or less, and who said when the first ends and the next begins, apparently when I started this site it made me the ruler of such great thing. Till next time…